During my research, I discovered this passage:

“During the fifteenth century, no small number of conversos had risen into important positions as financiers, tax farmers, and ecclesiastical dignitaries, thereby contesting the existing elite’s monopoly on power. One clear expression of the widespread resentment are the limpieza de sangre statutes of the sixteenth century, purity-of-blood decrees by which cathedral chapters, monasteries, and state institutions tried to protect themselves against the unregulated admission of so-called New Christians. After the middle of the sixteenth century, they were used throughout the country. The limpieza de sangre contained proof of untainted (which meant non-Jewish) descent. It was indeed ‘‘ominous’’ that Philip II, in 1556, authorized his royal privilege for such a statute by the cathedral chapter in Toledo with the comment that ‘‘all heresies in Germany, France, and Spain have been sown by the offspring of Jews.’’ 11 Do the roots of modern, racial anti-Semitism reach back into the Spain of Philip II? Should we be speaking here of anti-Semitism rather than hostility toward the Jews or anti-Judaism? Scholars of Jewish history are divided on how to answer these questions. To be sure, to an expert like Hermann Greive, ‘‘the question of this use of different words does not hold the kind of importance that it is sometimes accorded.’’ 12 As I see it, the overwhelming consensus of historical scholarship still holds that the term ‘‘anti-Semitism’’ should be used only for the situation of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries” (von Greyerz 135).

von, Greyerz, Kasper, and Kasper von Greyerz. Religion and Culture in Early Modern Europe, 1500-1800, Oxford University Press USA – OSO, 2007. ProQuest Ebook Central,
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